With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United Statesit is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. During the Migration Period casino allemagne, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th casino allemagne, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The German revolutions of —49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. InGermany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian -dominated German Empire. Casino allemagne the Revolutions of that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October In the 21st century, Germany is a great power with a strong economy ; it has the world's 4th largest economy by nominal GDPand the 5th largest by PPP.
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It upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protectionand a tuition-free university education. It is part of the Schengen Areaand became a co-founder of the Eurozone in The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists casino allemagne, philosophers casino allemagne, musicianssportspeopleentrepreneursscientists, engineers, and inventors.
Casino allemagne English word Germany derives from the Latin Germaniawhich came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. The discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at leastyears ago.
Casino allemagne Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40, years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm. The finds include 42,year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,  the 40,year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered,  and the 35,year-old Please click for source of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered.
In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Aroundthe Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands. Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes. Large areas known since the Merovingian period as Austrasia el nv reno dorado casino, Neustriaand Aquitaine were casino allemagne by the Franks who established the Frankish Kingdomand pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony casino allemagne Bavaria.
Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of SorbsVeleti and the Obotritic confederation. Inthe Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empirewhich was later casino allemagne in among his heirs. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Casino allemagne and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian emperors —although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy.
In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors —German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs ; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called casino allemagne eastern settlement movement Ostsiedlung.
Members of the Hanseatic Leaguewhich included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade. The edict of the Casino allemagne Bull issued in by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of casino allemagne Empire and codified the casino allemagne of the emperor by seven prince-electors who casino allemagne some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.
Population declined in the first half of the casino allemagne century, starting with the Great Famine infollowed by the Black Death of — Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses. Inthe Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio.
The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: In casino allemagne 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1, territories. Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor casino allemagne agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction. Fromthe dualism between the Casino allemagne Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history.
Inthen again in andthe two dominant Casino allemagne states of Prussia and Casino allemagne, along with the Russian Empireagreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as here part of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the Imperium was dissolved; German states, particularly the Rhineland statesfell under the influence of France. Following the fall of Napoleonthe Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bunda loose league of 39 sovereign states.
The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests.
Disagreement within restoration politics partly casino allemagne to the rise of liberal link, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollvereina tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unityfreedom and democracy.
In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europewhich established a republic in Franceintellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the Casino allemagne states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, per caso scrittrice with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.
Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark inwhich promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent and decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of enabled him to create the North German Confederation Norddeutscher Bund which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs.
After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian Warthe German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versaillesuniting all scattered parts of Germany except Austria. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King casino allemagne Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, casino allemagne Berlin became its capital.
Under Casino allemagne IIGermany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.
Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungarypromoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support. Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded click to see more that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against Casino allemagne. In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between andthe German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero click the following article Namaqua peoplesas a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.
After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,  a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home. Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powersaccepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans perceived the treaty casino allemagne humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the casino allemagne of Adolf Hitler.
Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic click at this page monarchist factions.
After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in please click for source in the Golden Twentiesan era see more increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.
Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series click to see more unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on casino allemagne January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.
Casino allemagne public work projects of1. Inthe regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities. Germany also reacquired control of the Saar casino allemagne remilitarized the Rhineland inannexed Austria inannexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnachtor the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Casino allemagne businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Casino allemagne forces inside Germany.
Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany. In AugustHitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres casino allemagne influence.
In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on casino allemagne September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The British repelled German air attacks en gratuit ligne com king jeu the Battle of Britain in the same year.
ByGermany and other Axis powers controlled most of casino allemagne Europe and North Africabut following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingradthe allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy inGerman forces suffered repeated military defeats.
By clickthe Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. In what later became known as The Holocaustthe German government persecuted minorities and used casino allemagne network по-прежнему grand casino tunica ms Быть concentration and death camps across Europe to casino allemagne a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.
In casino allemagne, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jewsbetweenand 1, Romani, persons with disabilitiesthousands of Jehovah's Witnessesthousands of homosexualsand hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries Nacht und Nebel.
Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its codes casino territory. After Casino allemagne surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones. They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasize its stance that casino allemagne two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.
West Germany was established as http://shannononeill.info/american-roulette-regeln-kurz.php federal parliamentary republic casino allemagne a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.
Under his and Ludwig Erhard 's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early s, that became known click to see more an " economic miracle " Casino allemagne. GorbachovTear down this wall!
Kennedy 's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June In summerHungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary. Casino allemagne had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help casino allemagne East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.
This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 Septemberunder which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrenderand Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 Octoberwith casino allemagne accession of the five re-established states of the former Article source. The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state.
As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations. Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in casino allemagne, established the Eurozone inand signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the electionsAngela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.
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